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Vajiram And Ravi Current Affairs March 2017 Download

Vajiram And Ravi Current Affairs March 2017 Download

Content :

SOCIAL ISSUES

1.1.      New Executive Director For World Food Programme

United Nations chief Antonio Guterres has appointed former South Carolina Governor David Beasley to run the Rome-based World Food Programme (WFP).

About World Food Programme (WFP)

·    As the international community has committed to end hunger, achieve food security and  improved nutrition by 2030, one in nine people worldwide still do not have enough to eat.

·    Food and food-related assistance lie at the heart of the struggle to break the cycle of hunger and poverty.

·    The World Food Programme is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.

·    It is assisting 80 million people in around 80 countries each year, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience.

·    WFP’s efforts focus on emergency assistance, relief and rehabilitation, development aid and special operations.

·    Two-thirds of its work is in conflict-affected countries where people are three times more likely to be undernourished than those living in countries without conflict.

·    It  also  focuses  on  nutrition,  especially  for  mothers  and  children,  addressing malnutrition from the earliest stages through programmes targeting the first 1,000 days from conception to a child’s second birthday, and later through school meals.

·    It was established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Conference.

·    Its headquarter is in Rome (Italy) and has more than 80 country offices around the world.

Food And Agriculture Organization (FAO)

·    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

·    An intergovernmental organization, FAO has 194 Member Nations, two associate members and one member organization, the European Union.

·    Headquartered in Rome, Italy, FAO is present in over 130 countries.

·    The organization has three main goals:

  •    The eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition;
  •    The elimination of poverty and the driving forward of economic and social progress for all;
  •    The sustainable management and utilization of natural resources, including land, water,  air, climate and genetic resources for the benefit of present and future generations.

1.2.      Titu Mir Controversy

·    Nearly 190 years after his death, Syed Mir Nisar Ali, or Titu Mir, a peasant leader, who led  the Narkelberia  Uprising in  1831 — often  considered the first  armed peasant  uprising   against  the  British  —  has  made  a  controversial  comeback inBengal’s politics through a chapter in a prescribed tenth grade history textbook.

·    The current row has been sparked by the chapter in the textbook that claims Titu Mir “killed” many Hindus and destroyed several temples.

·    The chapter, titled Wahhabi Movement in Bengal, states that the Wahhabis under “Titu’s leadership destroyed many Hindu temples and killed several priests.

·    Some historians have challenged this assertion, while the Opposition described it as a “distortion of history.” Titu Mir:

·    Syed  Mir  Nisar  Ali  Titumir  (1782–1831)  was  an  Islamic  preacher  who  led  a peasant  uprsing  against  the  zamindars  and  the  British  colonial  authorities  in Bengal, British India during the 19th century.

·    He built a bamboo fort in Narkelberia Village, which passed into Bengali folk legend.

·    He was a leader of the tariqah-i-muhammadiya in Bengal, and his movement initially  aimed  at  socio-religious  reforms,  elimination  of  the  practice  of  shirk (pantheism)  and  bidat  (innovation)  in  the  Muslim  society  and  at  inspiring  the Muslims to follow Islamic principles in their day to day life.

·    Celebrated in folklore as a peasant leader, Titu Mir remains a controversial political figure in Bengal for his religious identity as an Islamic preacher after he converted to Wahabism.

·    Mahasweta Devi wrote a novella called Titu Mir. A play named Titumir-er Basher Kellahas been made for TV in Bangladesh.

1.3.      National Conference On Down Syndrome

·    National Conference on Down Syndrome”was inaugurated in New Delhi recently.

·    The Conference was organized by The National Trust for the welfare of persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities under Ministry ofSocial  Justice   &Empowerment  in  collaboration  with  Muskaan,  a  registered organisation of the National Trust.

·    The conference called upon the people to provide all types of support and help to Persons  with Down Syndrome. It stated that persons with Down Syndrome are working in  various  areas and there is a need to recognise their talent and create environment conducive for Persons with Down Syndrome.

Down Syndrome:

·    Down  Syndrome  is  a  chromosomal  condition  associated  with  intellectual  and learning disabilities.

·    Delayed development and behavioural problems are often reported in children with Down Syndrome.

·    Persons  with  Down  Syndrome  have  47  chromosomes  as  compared  to  46  in majority of people. This one Extra chromosome causes its own impact and slows down learning process.

·     It impacts neurological functioning causing impairment of intellectual functions e.g. analytical thinking, complex abstractions and judgement etc.

·    Good schooling, loving family, learning and work opportunities make them grow up to be responsible, loving and cheerful persons.

·    Their emotions and needs are like any other person of the same age. Accepting and respecting family/community is a big support to their growth and development.

·    Fewer than 1 million cases per year are said to suffer with this syndrome in India.

Test Your Self :
 
1. Which of the following statements regarding  World  Food  Programme (WFP) is correct?
1.  David Beasley  is  the new executive director of WFP.
2.  It is based in Geneva, Switzerland.
Options are:
a)  1 only
b)  2 only
c)  Both 1 and 2
d)  Neither 1 nor 2
 
2.  Which  of  the  following  statements is/are true regarding Down Syndrome?
1.  It occurs due to genetic disorder.
2.  Persons suffering from this syndrome have 46 chromosomes instead of 47 in normal people.
3.  It is a curable disease.
 
Correct code(s):
a)  1 only             b)  2 and 3 only
c)   1 and 3 only  d)   1,2 and 3
 
3.  Which of the following statement(s) regarding  2016  Human Development Index   (HDI) is/are correct:
1.  India slipped down one place from 130 to 131 among the 188 countries.
2.  India’s human development index (HDI) value of 0.624 puts it in the “low human development” category.
Correct code is:
a)  Both 1 and 2
b)  Neither 1 nor 2
c)   1 only
d)  2 only
 
4.  Which of the following international declaration/treaty  had provisions regarding tribals?
1.  International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention 169 (1989).
2.  Convention on Biological Diversity (1992).
3.  The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP 2007).
Correct code is:
a)  Only1
b)  2 & 3
c)  1, 2 & 3
d)  None of the above
 
5.  Al  Nagah  is  the  military  exercise between
a)  India and Oman b)   India and Iran
c)  India and Sri Lanka d)   Oman and Pakistan
 
6.  Which of the statements are correct regarding Surya Kiran?
1.  The Surya Kiran series of military exercises  are  being  conducted bi-annually, alternatively in India and Nepal.
2.  It is largest exercise in terms of troop’s participation in series of military training  exercises undertaken by India with various countries.
a)  Only 1 b)  Only 2
c)  Neither 1 nor 2 d)   Both 1 & 2
 
7.  Micro Falcon is a
a)  Light Combat aircraft.
b)  Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
c)  Missile Defense System.
d)   Fighter jet.
8.  Which of the statements are correct regarding Djibouti?
1.  Djibouti  is  a  country located  in the Horn of Africa.
2.  The naval base Camp Lemmonier borders Djibouti‘s is the   only  permanent  American military installation in Africa.
a)  Only 1 b)  Only  2
c)  Neither 1 nor 2 d)   Both 1 & 2
 
9.  Which of the statements are correct regarding National Green Tribunal?
1.  The National Green Tribunal has been  established under   the National Green  Tribunal  Act 2010.
2.  It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues.
Correct option is:
a)  1 only b)  2 only
c)  Both 1 and 2
d)  Neither 1 nor 2
 
10. World Happiness Report is published by
a)   World Bank
b)  United Nations Sustainable Development Solution Network
c)   IMF
d)  World Economic Forum
 
Answers
 

1.  A

2.  A

3.  C

4.  D

5.  A

6.  D

7.  B

8.  D

9.  C

10. B

 

 

Feature Article:

Automation And Anxiety: Will Smarter Machines Cause Mass Unemployment?
 
SITTING IN AN off0ice in San Francisco, Igor Barani calls up some medical scans on his screen. He is the chief executive of Enlitic, one of a host of startups applying deep learning to medicine, starting with the analysis of images such as X-rays and CT scans. Red blobs flicker on the screen as Enlitic’s deep-learning system examines and compares them to see if they are blood vessels, harmless imaging artefacts or malignant lung nodules. The system ends up highlighting a particular feature for further investigation.
 
In a test against three expert human radiologists working together, Enlitic’s system was 50% better at classifying malignant tumours and had a false-gative rate (where a cancer is missed) of zero, compared with 7% for the humans. Another of Enlitic’s systems, which examines X-rays to detect wrist fractures, also handily outperformed human experts. The firm’s technology is currently being tested in 40 clinics across Australia.
 
It is an obvious use of the technology. Deep learning is renowned for its superhuman prowess at certain forms of image recognition; and there is emendous potential to make health care more accurate and efficient.
 
A computer that dispenses expert radiology advice is just one example of how jobs currently done by highly trained white-collar workers can be automated, thanks to the advance of deep learning and other forms of artificial intelligence. The idea that manual work can be carried out by machines is already familiar; now ever-smarter machines can perform tasks done by information workers, too.Hence the question that looms large at
this point of time is whether automation would lead to mass unemployment?
 
AUTOMATION: LEADING TO THE MASS UNEMPLOYMENT
 
  • There have been periodic warnings in the last two centuries that automationand new technology were going to wipe out large numbers of middle class jobs.
  • The best-known early example is the Luddite movement of the early19th century, in which a group of English textile artisans protested the automationof textile production by seeking to destroy some of the machines.
  • Automation increased during the latter half of 20th century, as computers were combined with machines to produce highly sophisticated robotic systems and other automated processes. The result has been increased productivity and lower human resource costs for manufacturers and the elimination of some categories of jobs for workers.
  • In 21st century, with the development of Artificial intelligence and robotics along with software to handle big data the process of automation has hastened.
  • According to Stephen Hawking,artificial intelligence and increasing automation is going to decimate middle class jobs, worsening inequality and risking significant political upheaval.
  • According to him, while artificial intelligence will bring radical increases in efficiency in industry, for ordinary people this will translate into unemployment and uncertainty, as their human jobs are replaced by machines.
  • For example, we expected waiters and waitresses to be non-automatable: what we saw as the requirement to make pleasant small talk with restaurant customers was beyond what we could see a robot server providing. Nonetheless, new algorithms gave waiters and waitresses a (high) probability of computerisation of 94%. Since then, of course, US restaurant chains likeChili’s have introduced Ziosk tablets to their tables, which are able to take orders, recommend specials and take payment more efficiently than a human server.
  • When AlphaGo, a program developed by Google's DeepMind unit, has defeated legendary Go player Lee Se-dol, the automation has announced its arrival in the arena of sports.

 

Click here to Download Feature Article March -2017

Courtesy: Vajiram And Ravi